Gynecomastia (also spelled gynaecomastia) is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue as a result of a hormone imbalance between estrogen and androgen. Gynecomastia can cause significant psychological distress or unease.. Gynecomastia can be normal in newborn babies due to exposure to estrogen from the mother, in …
Loss of SNHG9 suppresses xenograft breast tumor growth. Clinically, expression of SNHG9 positively correlates with YAP activity and breast cancer progression. Taken together, our results uncover a novel regulatory role of a tumor-promoting lncRNA (i.e., SNHG9) in signal transduction and cancer development by facilitating the LLPS of a signaling ...
Breast ironing, also known as breast flattening, is the pounding and massaging of a pubescent girl's breasts, using hard or heated objects, to try to make them stop developing or disappear. The practice is typically performed by a close female figure to the victim, traditionally fulfilled by a mother, grandmother, aunt, or female guardian who will say she is trying to protect the girl from ...
The protein responsible for binding to and detecting progesterone in the body; the receptor is located in the nucleus of many cell types, including the breast epithelial cells. Some cancers express the progesterone receptor and are termed “hormone receptor positive” cancers.
Sep 10, 2021 · Our results show that the photoinitiators likely promote breast tumor growth by binding to estrogen receptors on tumor cells and initiating estrogen signaling," clarifies Prof. Sendo.
Sep 07, 2014 · Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family having tyrosine kinase activity. Dimerization of the receptor results in the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of the receptors and initiates a variety of signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
This dye turns the nuclei blue and the cytoplasm pink. Resident physicians are physicians who have finished medical school and are now studying a specific area in depth, such as pathology, internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, radiology, and more. The process by which a cell divides into two cells. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis. AlertNet, Reuters. The neu oncogene: An erb-B-related gene encoding a ,M r tumour antigen. Medical Oncology. A treatment that can reach cancer cells that have potentially spread throughout the body. A method of processing tissue to evaluate it under the microscope; the tissue is formalin fixed and paraffin embedded so that it can be thinly sliced and made into slides to review under a microscope. Breast ironing , also known as breast flattening ,  is the pounding and massaging of a pubescent girl's breasts , using hard or heated objects, to try to make them stop developing or disappear. Frequent homogenous HER-2 amplification in primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of the esophagus. A method that pathologists can perform intra-operatively i. Breast myofibroblasts can also respond to changes in estrogen levels in the body. Kawasaki and Prof. Prognostic significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor positivity for the development of brain metastasis after newly diagnosed breast cancer. The cell that surrounds normal breast ducts and and lobules ; myoepithelial cells have some contractile properties and also produce the normal basement membrane that surrounds the ducts and lobules. High levels of prolactin are uncommon in people with gynecomastia. Anti-HER agents in gastric cancer: from bench to bedside. Archived from the original PDF on 19 April Near and around the time of menopause. With increasing understanding of HER2 biology, it has now been recognized that HER2 overexpression occurs in other forms of cancers also such as stomach, ovary, uterine serous endometrial carcinoma, colon, bladder, lung, uterine cervix, head and neck, and esophagus [ 17 , 18 ]. In gastric tissue, the basolateral membrane is stained, not the luminal membrane resulting in the heterogeneity. Phase III evaluation of neratinib is ongoing in adjuvant trastuzumab-pretreated early-stage breast cancer. Namespaces Article Talk. British Medical Journal. A type of biopsy in which a hollow needle is used to aspirate suck out small clusters and individual cells from a mass. Cirrhotics tend to have increased secretion of the androgenic hormone androstenedione from the adrenal glands, increased conversion of this hormone into various types of estrogen,  and increased levels of SHBG, which leads to decreased blood levels of free testosterone. Indeed, for both Dr. Aetna Inc. A neoplastic clonal growth of cells with the potential to metastasize spread throughout the body. Gynecomastia in adolescents usually starts between the ages of 10 and 12 and commonly goes away after 18 months. Neurologic Clinics. Pertuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the activation of the HER2 receptor by hindering dimerization. In a broad generalization, "low grade" cancers tend to be less aggressive than "high grade" cancers. The Journal of Urology. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. Gynecomastia also spelled gynaecomastia [a] is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue as a result of a hormone imbalance between estrogen and androgen. Results from the study showed an average increase in progression-free survival of 6. Alcohol and some drugs can also cause breast enlargement. What is the Prognostic Stage Group? A harmful practice that has been silenced for too long" PDF. The aim of this review is to update the role of HER2 in various cancers. The practice ranges dramatically in its severity, from using heated leaves to press and massage the breasts, to using a scalding grinding stone to crush the budding gland. Medications that are probably associated with gynecomastia include calcium channel blockers such as verapamil , amlodipine , and nifedipine ; risperidone , olanzapine , anabolic steroids ,   alcohol , opioids , efavirenz , alkylating agents , and omeprazole. C-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression related to chemoradioresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Figure 1. Swelling of a part of the body from excess fluid see also lymphedema. Even estrogen, working via the nongenomic activity of estrogen receptor ER outside the nucleus, has been shown to activate HER2 signaling [ 20 ].
As a patient, the stage and grade of your breast cancer tumor will guide your treatment and have an impact on prognosis. Learn what staging and grade mean, as well as how they are calculated. The pathologic stage of breast cancer is a measure of how advanced a patient's tumor is. Breast cancer stage ranges from Stage 0 pre-invasive disease to Stage IV metastatic disease. Stage is a prognostic factor, and in broad generalization, "low stage" cancers Stages 0-II tend to have better long term outcome than "high stage" cancers Stages III-IV. Understanding a patient's stage helps the clinical team determine the right treatment. The "pathologic stage" of a cancer takes into consideration the characteristics of the tumor "T" and the presence of any lymph nodes metastases "N" or distant organ metastases "M". These features are assigned individual scores called the pathologic T stage T , N stage N and M stage M are combined to form a final overall pathology stage stage 0-IV. The pathologic stage is determined by the findings at the time of surgery and is different from the "clinical stage," which is the stage estimated based upon the findings on clinical exam and radiology. The American Joint Committee on Cancer AJCC published a revised protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with invasive breast cancers in , which is the 8th edition of cancer staging. This stage group should be discussed with an oncologist or breast surgeon. The grade of a breast cancer is a prognostic factor and is representative of the "aggressive potential" of the tumor. In a broad generalization, "low grade" cancers tend to be less aggressive than "high grade" cancers. Determining the grade is thus very important, and clinicians use this information to help guide treatment options for patients. There are different "scoring systems" available for determining the grade of a breast cancer. In this scoring system, there are three factors that the pathologists take into consideration:. Each of these features is scored from , and then the scores is added to give a final total score ranging from The final total score is used to determine the grade in the following way:. The pathologist will count how many mitotic figures are seen in 10 high power fields. The criteria above use a high power field diameter of 0. The scores from all three categories above are added up to come up with the Overall Grade. This invasive ductal carcinoma consists of small angulated glands with fairly uniform nuclei. Grade I carcinomas tend to have be less aggressive and have a better prognosis than higher grade carcinomas. They are also more often ER positive, which is another feature associated with a more favorable prognosis. Portions of this invasive ductal carcinoma are forming tubular gland structures, but the remaining areas are poorly formed glands with nests of cells containing moderately atypical nuclei. This invasive ductal carcinoma consists of sheets of individual and nests cells with marked nuclear atypia and mitotic activity. Grade III carcinomas tend to behave more aggressively and have a worse prognosis that the lower grade carcinomas. They are also more often triple negative for ER, PR and HER2, which is another feature associated with aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. A benign change of the breast where the stroma becomes dense, similar to scar tissue, which distorts the surrounding tissue. An imaging technique that uses beams of radiation X-rays to take an image of the body. A mammogram is a specialized form of an X-ray image. A multidisciplinary meeting of the physicians and caretakers involved in cancer care, including pathologists , surgical oncologists , medical oncologists , radiologists , nurses and genetic counselors to discuss the treatment plans for individual patients. Benign hyperplasia growth of the breast epithelial cells lining the ducts and lobules. The process by which the body reads the code in RNA to make proteins. A mass or a lump. A tumor mass can be nonneoplastic and be due to something like swelling or inflammation. A tumor mass can also be neoplastic, and includes both benign and malignant tumors. A type of treatment that specifically targets a single molecule or pathway involved in cancer cell growth and progression. Examples in breast cancer care include the drugs that target HER-2, such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab. The unit in the breast comprised of the lobules and their associated terminal duct. The breast contains innumerable terminal duct lobular units. All breast carcinomas arise from the epithelial cells in the terminal duct lobular unit. A treatment that can reach cancer cells that have potentially spread throughout the body. Examples include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Systemic therapies can have side effects due to effects on normal body cells, such as hair loss or gastrointestinal distress. The connective tissue of the breast, that is, the fibrous tissue in which the epithelial elements are located. A core needle biopsy that is performed with the use of a mammogram to identify the lesion and guide the biopsy needle. A core needle biopsy that is done with the use of an ultrasound sonogram to localized the mass and guide the needle into the correct location. Stage ranges from 0 to 4, with stage 0 being pre-invasive disease such as DCIS , and stage 4 being metastatic disease.
ERBB2 amplification in breast cancer analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. Breast ironing is extremely painful and can cause tissue damage. Mitotic counts are generally measured by number of mitotic cells per 10 high power fields HPF. Gynecomastia can be normal in newborn babies due to exposure to estrogen from the mother, in adolescents going through puberty , and in older and obese men. The most common adverse effects include fatigue, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, thrombocytopenia, headache, transaminitis, constipation, and peripheral neuropathy. A research study in which patient records and files are reviewed to look for results outcomes that already occurred in the past. The grade of a breast cancer is a prognostic factor and is representative of the "aggressive potential" of the tumor. Pennsylvania Record. A rare type of fibroepithelial lesion of the breast that contains neoplastic stromal cells and associated benign epithelium. Categories : Andrology Breast diseases Endocrine diseases Medical conditions related to obesity. A doctor specialized in the treatment of cancer using hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Namespaces Article Talk. Examples include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. A treatment for some forms of cancer that uses high energy radiation to damage the DNA of the cells. Soft, compressible, and mobile breast tissue is felt under the nipple and its surrounding skin in contrast to softer fatty tissue. Radiation therapy and tamoxifen have been shown to help prevent gynecomastia and breast pain from developing in prostate cancer patients who will be receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Retrieved DOI: Early histological features expected to be seen on examination of gynecomastic tissue attained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy include the following: proliferation and lengthening of the ducts, an increase in connective tissue, an increase in inflammation, and swelling surrounding the ducts, and an increase in fibroblasts in the connective tissue. A measure of how rapidly a tumor is growing by assessing how many cells are dividing. Both HER2 overexpression and amplification have been linked to poor prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Benign hyperplasia growth of the breast epithelial cells lining the ducts and lobules. How is the pathologic stage 0-IV determined? Dating abuse Domestic violence outline management and pregnancy Droit du seigneur Eve teasing Forced abortion Force-feeding Forced marriage Forced pregnancy Forced sterilisation Marriage by abduction Marry-your-rapist law Raptio Witch trials. In gynecomastia there is typically enlargement of one or both breasts, symmetrically or asymmetrically, in a man. In more severe cases, medical treatment may be offered including medication or surgical intervention. Archived from the original on April 10, A receptor protein that binds hormones within a cell in order to affect changes within the cell. Clinical Cancer Research. They regulate cell growth, survival, and differentiation via multiple signal transduction pathways and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. The American Journal of Medicine Review. Linalool, which contains lavender, is found in the fragrance of cosmetic products and shampoos such as Pantene Pro-V. June A tubular structure that carry blood both to and from various parts of the body. Figure 2. Gynecomastia is not physically harmful, but in some cases it may be an indicator of other more serious underlying conditions, such as testicular cancer. In a study by Yano et al. The layer of cells that lines the outside of the body, lines the inside of the body cavities, and lines the outside and inside of body organs. The protein responsible for binding to and detecting estrogen in the body; the receptor is located in the nucleus of many cell types, including the breast epithelial cells. Although HER2 overexpression was also found to correlate with poor outcome in other cancers, HER2 directed therapies provided disappointed results. A benign tumor cannot invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. The HER receptors exist as monomers on the cell surface. The most serious adverse effects include cardiomyopathy, pulmonary toxicity, infusion reactions, and febrile neutropenia. The results are only preliminary, however, and must be confirmed with review of the final FFPE sections.
Gynecomastia also spelled gynaecomastia [a] is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in males due to the growth of breast tissue as a result of a hormone imbalance between estrogen and androgen. Gynecomastia can be normal in newborn babies due to exposure to estrogen from the mother, in adolescents going through puberty , and in older and obese men. Alcohol and some drugs can also cause breast enlargement. Gynecomastia is different from " pseudogynecomastia ",   which is commonly present in men with obesity. Medications such as aromatase inhibitors have been found to be effective  and even in rare cases of gynecomastia from disorders such as aromatase excess syndrome or Peutz—Jeghers syndrome ,  but surgical removal of the excess tissue can be needed to correct the condition. Gynecomastia is the abnormal non-cancerous enlargement of one or both breasts in men due to the growth of breast tissue as a result of a hormone imbalance between estrogen and androgen. In gynecomastia there is typically enlargement of one or both breasts, symmetrically or asymmetrically, in a man. Soft, compressible, and mobile breast tissue is felt under the nipple and its surrounding skin in contrast to softer fatty tissue. Men with gynecomastia may appear anxious or stressed due to concerns about its appearance and the possibility of having breast cancer. Gynecomastia is thought to be caused by an altered ratio of estrogens to androgens mediated by an increase in estrogen production, a decrease in androgen production, or a combination of these two factors. Linalool, which contains lavender, is found in the fragrance of cosmetic products and shampoos such as Pantene Pro-V. Certain health problems in men such as liver disease, kidney failure, or low testosterone can cause breast growth in men. Drugs and liver disease are the most common cause in adults. Both male and female newborns may show breast development at birth or in the first weeks of life. Gynecomastia in adolescents usually starts between the ages of 10 and 12 and commonly goes away after 18 months. Declining testosterone levels and an increase in the level of subcutaneous fatty tissue seen as part of the normal aging process can lead to gynecomastia in older men. This is also known as senile gynecomastia. When the human body is deprived of adequate nutrition , testosterone levels drop, while the adrenal glands continue to produce estrogens, thereby causing a hormonal imbalance. Medications that are probably associated with gynecomastia include calcium channel blockers such as verapamil , amlodipine , and nifedipine ; risperidone , olanzapine , anabolic steroids ,   alcohol , opioids , efavirenz , alkylating agents , and omeprazole. People with kidney failure are often malnourished, which may contribute to gynecomastia development. Dialysis may attenuate malnutrition of kidney failure. Additionally, many kidney failure patients experience a hormonal imbalance due to the suppression of testosterone production and testicular damage from high levels of urea also known as uremia-associated hypogonadism. In individuals with liver failure or cirrhosis, the liver's ability to properly metabolize hormones such as estrogen may be impaired. Additionally, those with alcoholic liver disease are further put at risk for development of gynecomastia; ethanol may directly disrupt the synthesis of testosterone and the presence of phytoestrogens in alcoholic drinks may also contribute to a higher estrogen to testosterone ratio. A small proportion of male gynecomastia cases may be seen with rare inherited disorders such as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and the very rare aromatase excess syndrome. Testicular tumors such as Leydig cell tumors or Sertoli cell tumors  such as in Peutz—Jeghers syndrome  or hCG -secreting choriocarcinoma  may result in gynecomastia. Other tumors such as adrenal tumors , pituitary gland tumors such as a prolactinoma , or lung cancer , can produce hormones that alter the male—female hormone balance and cause gynecomastia. Individuals with prostate cancer who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy may experience gynecomastia. The causes of common gynecomastia remain uncertain, but are thought to result from an imbalance between the actions of estrogen and androgens at the breast tissue. Primary hypogonadism indicating an intrinsic problem with the testes in males leads to decreased testosterone synthesis and increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol potentially leading to a gynecomastic appearance. Individuals who have cirrhosis or chronic liver disease may develop gynecomastia for several reasons. Cirrhotics tend to have increased secretion of the androgenic hormone androstenedione from the adrenal glands, increased conversion of this hormone into various types of estrogen,  and increased levels of SHBG, which leads to decreased blood levels of free testosterone. Proper treatment of the hyperthyroidism can lead to the resolution of the gynecomastia. Medications are known to cause gynecomastia through several different mechanisms. These mechanisms include increasing estrogen levels, mimicking estrogen, decreasing levels of testosterone or other androgens, blocking androgen receptors, increasing prolactin levels, or through unidentified means. To diagnose gynecomastia, a thorough history and physical examination are obtained by a physician. Important aspects of the physical examination include evaluation of the male breast tissue with palpation to evaluate for breast cancer and pseudogynecomastia male breast tissue enlargement solely due to excess fatty tissue , evaluation of penile size and development, evaluation of testicular development and an assessment for masses that raise suspicion for testicular cancer , and proper development of secondary sex characteristics such as the amount and distribution of pubic and underarm hair. A review of the medications or illegal substances an individual takes may reveal the cause of gynecomastia. High levels of prolactin are uncommon in people with gynecomastia. If this evaluation does not reveal the cause of gynecomastia, then it is considered to be idiopathic gynecomastia of unclear cause. Other causes of male breast enlargement such as mastitis ,   breast cancer , pseudogynecomastia, lipoma , sebaceous cyst , dermoid cyst , hematoma , metastasis , ductal ectasia , fat necrosis , or a hamartoma are typically excluded before making the diagnosis. Mammography is the method of choice for radiologic examination of male breast tissue in the diagnosis of gynecomastia when breast cancer is suspected on physical examination. Early histological features expected to be seen on examination of gynecomastic tissue attained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy include the following: proliferation and lengthening of the ducts, an increase in connective tissue, an increase in inflammation, and swelling surrounding the ducts, and an increase in fibroblasts in the connective tissue. The utility of pathologic examination of breast tissue removed from male adolescent gynecomastia patients has recently been questioned due to the rarity of breast cancer in this population. The spectrum of gynecomastia severity has been categorized into a grading system: . Mild cases of gynecomastia in adolescence may be treated with advice on lifestyle habits such as proper diet and exercise with reassurance.