OSAGE. The Osage are an American Indian tribe whose ancestral domain included much of Oklahoma. A legend indicates the Osage and the other Dhegiha Sioux (Kaw, Omaha, Ponca, and Quapaw) originated at Indian Knoll near the mouth of the Green River in Kentucky. However, in paleolithic times they ranged from the fork of the Ohio River to the Mississippi and beyond.
Jan 22, 2020 · The remaining strip, thirty miles in width, and lying west of the “Ceded Lands,” was the “Osage Diminished Reserve.”. After the treaty of 1865, the tribe moved on to this reservation, a part settling on Pumpkin Creek, in the Verdigris Valley, and several bands at …
The Osage Nation Judicial Branch is an independent, co-equal branch of the Osage Nation government empowered by the Osage Constitution to provide an impartial and responsive justice system that protects the rights and liberties of all who come before it, interprets and enforces governing law fairly and equally and reflects the unique social, governmental and cultural standards of the Osage Nation.
The Osage Indians are a tribe of Native Americans that originally made their homes in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Today, many members of this tribe still call Oklahoma home. The Osage Indians have a reservation in Oklahoma and have their own government and legal system. Modern Osage Indians have a leader who is called their chief.
The Osage Indians are a seminomadic tribe. They were known for gardening, hunting, and foraging. Eventually, they found themselves in the northwestern part of Arkansas. The United States government started to take away land from the Osage Indians in 1808. A reservation was formed for the Osage Indians in Southern Kansas in 1825. As with many other tribes they were relocated to Oklahoma.
Cheveau Blanc, or White Hair, was the chief. For years, the Missouria had been engaged in intertribal warfare with the Sac and Fox. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior sent four agents to act as undercover investigators. Today's Osage members may wear moccasins and some may own deerskin dresses. The judicial branch maintains courts to interpret the laws of the Osage Nation. This was distributed to each living Osage and amounted to a little more than ten thousand dollars each. Many songs and ceremonies were created for all facets of life such as adoption, marriage, war, agriculture and to honor the rising of the sun in the morning. The priest told her not to touch liquor under any circumstances. However, in paleolithic times they ranged from the fork of the Ohio River to the Mississippi and beyond. Efforts for survival were the responsibility of the people and not of Wakonda, although they may ask Wakonda for help. The trading interests among the Osage were principally in the hands of a few persons who represented large and influential companies at St. According to the constitution, only Osage members who are also headright holders can vote for the members of the Mineral Council. University of Minnesota. They hunted with Louis XV in the royal forest and saw an opera. At the time of his arrival at the village of the Grand Osage, the Little Osage had already marched a war party against the Kanza , and the Grand Osage, a party against the Arkansa band. Its major provision was to provide " one man, one vote " to each citizen of the nation. They are equal in number to about half of all the other Osage. The Osage Indians are a seminomadic tribe. It began around 1, years ago and lasted roughly years, until Europeans first made their presence known. Accessed April 28, The Osage There are as many theories on where the Osage originated as there are points of the compass, and as historian Kristie C. He knew the Osage for their scouting expertise, excellent terrain knowledge, and military prowess. They preserve the checks and balances of the government by the independent exercise of legislative powers, and they carry out oversight responsibilities to enhance government accountability. They established the Union, Harmony, and Hopefield missions. The Osage timeline explains what happened to the people of their tribe. The other agents recruited were: a former New Mexico sheriff; a former Texas Ranger ; John Burger, who had worked on the previous investigation; Frank Smith; and John Wren, an American Indian of the Ute Nation who had previously been a spy for the Mexican revolutionaries. The Missouria were a highly spiritual people who worshipped a single deity— Maun, the Earth Maker or Creator. These bands were relocated on the Verdigris River in the Kansas part of Indian Territory where the Missouri Osage had agreed to settle in Please enter the following code:. Epilogue The two original tribes to hold the lands now known as Missouri flourished until the coming of the Europeans. An work by George Catlin shows the wife and child of an Osage chief in Western clothes. It is clear that the man's last name is Vaughan, as Mr. What did the Osage tribe live in? September 28, am to September 28, pm. Willard H. This Congress is made up of twelve individuals who are elected by the Osage constituency and serve four-year terms. The rights to these lands in future generations was divided among legal heirs, as were the mineral headrights to mineral lease royalties. The Missouria lived here from roughly to the early s, when the population moved its village some eight miles west to Gumbo Point. Most Oklahoma history texts mention that the Constitutional Convention of had delegates from Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory but neglect to note that the Osage Tribe also had two convention delegates. Wilson being appointed Post Sutler the succeeding year. As the Osage owned their land, they were in a stronger position than other tribes. But this discovery of "black gold" eventually led to more hardships for tribal members. Books Published More They typically wear modern clothing, however, and save the clothing their ancestors wore for ceremonies and special occasions. Of the Chaneers; or, Arkansa tribes of Osage, they do not come to the area to trade. The gable ends are generally broad slabs and rounded off to the ridge pole. George C. They issue their own vehicle tags, operate their own housing authority, and own several businesses including a truck stop, a gas station, 19 smoke shops, and seven casinos. Nor were these two tribes unique. In , the nation gained a settlement from the federal government after an year legal struggle over long mismanagement of their oil funds. The Reform Commission held weekly meetings to develop a referendum that Osage members could vote upon in order to develop and reshape the Osage Nation government and its policies. Osage Village. The Osage later became scouts for the U. Later, Kiowa warriors, allied with the Comanche , raided the Osage and others. Related Stories: Osage Indians Articles Home Page The following lists catalog the specific articles, stories, legends and research materials of this website.
Contact Us Press Room. Campbell Collection, OHS. The Osage are an American Indian tribe whose ancestral domain included much of Oklahoma. However, in paleolithic times they ranged from the fork of the Ohio River to the Mississippi and beyond. Osage genesis myths and archaeological evidence tend to support the legend. The Osage Bear Clan version of creation has the four winds gathering the flood waters of the earth and draining the water in great rivers. Bits and pieces of evidence indicate there were probably three routes of Osage immigration into the trans-Mississippi West. A fragmentary cluster of small groups followed the White River to Arkansas, Missouri, and eastern Oklahoma. The largest core cluster of bands took the Missouri-Osage River route to west central Missouri. After a short stay the six bands of Osage went south to the mouth of the Osage River. After a decade they went upstream to the bend of the Missouri River opposite the mouth of the Grand River. In three of the Osage bands joined the main group on the Osage River. During the move to reach their historic locations all of the bands kept close contact with their clans and gentile system, which acted as the bond holding the Osage together as a people. In the long war to stop the Iroquois' movement from the Northeast to the Old Southwest that is now Kentucky, the Osage had formed an alliance with the Illinois. Two of the Illinois clans had merged with the Osage on the Oneota. Both this merger and the long Kentucky war had revolutionized Osage government and their military organization. Thus, it was natural for them to launch into a territorial war for control of the prairie-plains. The Caddo speakers who were native to the area were basically a peace-loving people, as the Osage had once been. Like the Osage, they were forced to become warlike in the face of the Osage invasion. However, by the Osage had established control over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. About the Osage took the westernmost French outpost from the French. By they were raiding near Santa Fe. According to one account they explored as far west as the Palos Verdes Peninsula on the Pacific coast of California before Spanish governmental communications from New Mexico and Texas clearly show a well-established Osage presence in Oklahoma by With the transfer of the French claim to Louisiana to Spain in the Spanish found they could not dominate or control the Osage. One of the largest Osage bands in Oklahoma before was the Black Dog band. With ramped ford approaches and cleared of all trees, brush, and large rocks, it could accommodate eight horsemen riding abreast. This village was called the Place of the Oaks. Possibly over a thousand or more other Osages resided in Oklahoma before in small villages. Osage village and campsites were favored places for later settlements; the sites were cleared and lay within the network of Osage trails that became the highways of today. To end Osage-Cherokee hostilities the U. These bands were relocated on the Verdigris River in the Kansas part of Indian Territory where the Missouri Osage had agreed to settle in Thus, removal back to Oklahoma from Kansas in was the third displacement within forty-six years. The previous removals were bad, but the expulsion was worse in terms of lives lost and hardships. This move almost destroyed the Osage people. Old tombstones indicate the greatest toll was among young mothers and infants. Yet the old people who made the move never spoke of the deaths and sorrows. The Osage economy relied upon hunting and gathering, but they had a sizable agriculture and an extensive trading system. Grazing became economically important in the s. Income mainly from grazing leases caused the commissioner of Indian affairs to call the Osages "the richest people on earth. By the s the commissioner's comment had come closer to the truth. Osage grass-leasing regulations made an easy transfer from grass to oil leasing. Allotment brought a division of the Osage Trust Estate. This financial estate came from treaty settlements, land sales from the Kansas Reservation, and accumulated interest on money held in trust by the United States. This was distributed to each living Osage and amounted to a little more than ten thousand dollars each. Income from grass and mineral leases were distributed quarterly on a per capita basis to those who had been living in In addition, each headright holder, that is, one entitled to an equal share of the tribe's mineral interests, was allotted just over acres in Osage County, Oklahoma. Unlike other reservation allotments in Oklahoma, there were no surplus lands after Osage allotment. The Osage had purchased their reservation and owned it in fee simple. Osage County never came under the Homestead Act of Osage prosperity attracted money-hungry outsiders.
The Osage were pleased to have a fur trading post nearby, as it gave them access to manufactured goods and increased their prestige among the tribes. After the Missouris, who suspected no evil, had been killed or wounded with arrows, the victors leaped in the water and finished their blood work with clubs and knifes: very few of the missouris escaped. The Osage were unyielding in refusing to give up their lands and held up statehood for Oklahoma before signing an allotment act. The Indian Agency was removed from the Neosho River to Quapaw country, but the Osage continued to live in their old villages, so great a part of their time being spent in hunting or idly wandering from place to place. Tens of thousands of oil workers arrived, more than 30 boom towns sprang up and, nearly overnight, Osage headright holders became the "richest people in the world. Osage County, Oklahoma. According to one account they explored as far west as the Palos Verdes Peninsula on the Pacific coast of California before This tribe of Native Americans has its own language. Each family, if lucky, can save from ten to twenty bags of corn and beans, of a bushel and a half each, besides a quantity of dried pumpkins. The previous removals were bad, but the expulsion was worse in terms of lives lost and hardships. The people's survival was dependent on their ability to defend themselves. The Osage Indians have a reservation in Oklahoma and have their own government and legal system. The women cultivated varieties of corn , squash , and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food. The Osage regarded the Cherokee as invaders. As the Osage owned their land, they were in a stronger position than other tribes. Apparently, this information was miscommunicated to the early Europeans. Osage Chiefs in Indian Territory. They conduct regular meetings on the first Friday and the third Wednesday of each month. Having been superseded as the agent by Manuel de Lisa , also an enterprising St. All Osage Minerals Council Meetings are open to the public and available to watch or listen live. Traditional Spirituality, Inlonshka, Christianity. In exchange, they were to receive reservation lands to the West and supplies to help them adapt to farming and a more settled culture. Catlin made S t. Francis Xavier College Church of St. At the time, many Osage did not understand the value of such contracts and often were taken advantage of by unscrupulous businessmen, con artists, and others trying to grab part of their wealth. Osage life was highly ritualized, where certain ceremonies would be performed utilizing bundles, ceremonial pipes which used tobacco as offerings to seek Wakonda's aid. The food that the Osage tribe ate came from the animals they hunted on the Great Plains including Buffalo, elk, deer venison , black bear and wild turkey. Tulsa World. Osage Tribe. Each village had a number of wa eghi, or headmen, who acted as leaders in such matters as war, religion, administration, and medicine. Osage prosperity attracted money-hungry outsiders. They wore their hair long and also wore jewelry and tattoos. By the time of the Sac and Fox ambush, the tribe had already been reduced to fewer than 1, people. The United States government started to take away land from the Osage Indians in Kyle was killed as well. They were first discovered by French explorers around But they—and their heritage—survive. American Indian History Online. At that time, eight lawyers were working in Pawhuska , the Osage County seat , which had 8, residents; the number of lawyers was said to be as great as Oklahoma City , which had , residents. The doctors were also priests or magicians, possessing great influence, being supposed to have knowledge of deep mysteries and to be wonderfully skilled in the use of medicines. There are no full-blooded Missouria alive today; the last one died in Missouria men were polygamous, but the women were allowed only a single mate. The Caddo speakers who were native to the area were basically a peace-loving people, as the Osage had once been. After the various land-hungry nations staked their respective claims on the seemingly boundless expanse they called the New World, no tribe that had long occupied or settled in Missouri would ever again claim control over itself or its old way of life. In addition to the principal reservation, various half-breed and other small reservations were located on the Neosho, Marais des Cygnes and Mine Rivers, including the sections whereon the principal improvements had been made, and those on which the missionary establishments were located. Namespaces Article Talk. In the Osage sued the federal government over its management of the trust assets, alleging that it had failed to pay tribal members appropriate royalties, and had not historically protected the land assets and appreciation. Cheveau Blanc, or White Hair, was the chief. The judicial branch maintains courts to interpret the laws of the Osage Nation. Ceremonial Dance, Ritual and Song.
Of the Indian nations living north of the Arkansas River and west of the Mississippi River , the Osage were best known to the French during the early years of their occupancy of Louisiana. Claiming lands extending east even to the banks of the Mississippi River, and maintaining friendly intercourse with the Illinois tribe, who dwelt on the opposite shore, the Osage were brought in frequent contact with the French adventurers of Kaskaskia, Natchez and New Orleans. Renandiere, to construct furnaces and develop the mine, gave a fresh impetus to the prevailing spirit of extravagant expectation in regard to the mineral resources of the western portion of Louisiana. At this time, the Osage had villages on the Missouri and Osage Rivers , the latter not very distant from the famous mine. It was during the year that silver was discovered on the Marameg, and when the mining mania was at fever heat, that Du Tissenet was sent by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, Governor of Louisiana, to explore the western part of the province, and, in the course of his investigations, visited and crossed from southeast to northwest to the present State of Kansas. Du Tissenet visited the village of the Osage Indians, five miles from the Osage River, at eighty leagues above its mouth, and describes the inhabitants as stout, well made and great warriors. He also mentions the lead mines that were found in their country. Sixty-four Osage Indians formed a part of the escort of Etienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont on his Pacific Mission to the Padoucas in , but from that time there is no record of any organized French expedition visiting the region. The destruction of Fort Orleans, of which De Bourgmont was Commandant, and the massacre of the entire garrison, effectually put a stop, for a long time, to any further attempts to extend French exploration toward the west, and, except the fact that the Osage, Kanza , and Pawnee were engaged in continual war among themselves and with the more western tribes , little is known of them until the explorations of Lewis and Clark and Lieutenant Zebulon Pike furnished more definite knowledge of their locations, homes, and habits of life. As early as , a division was effected in the Osage Nation. The Chaneers, or Arkansa band, under the leadership of Chief Cashesegra, or Clermont, removed to the Verdigris River and formed several villages along its banks, that of Clermont being about 60 miles up the river. The Arkansa band was principally composed of the young men of the two tribes, and its formation was effected through the influence of Pierre Choteau, a St. Louis fur trader, who had hitherto enjoyed a monopoly of the trade with the Osage by the way of the river of the same name. Having been superseded as the agent by Manuel de Lisa , also an enterprising St. Louis trader, Choteau determined to plant a colony of young and vigorous Osage on one of the tributaries of the Arkansas River, and endeavor to draw the trade of his rival to the more southern river, in which financial scheme he was quite successful, the new settlement soon quite overshadowing the older. They, however, were soon attacked by the warlike tribes farther to the north and east, and forced to seek refuge and protection in the vicinity of the more numerous band of the Grand Osage, who dwelt near the headwaters of the Osage River, about fifteen miles east of the present Kansas line. In the accomplishment of these objectives, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike had the opportunity to carefully observe the customs and noted the peculiarities of the Osage at that period. At the time of his arrival at the village of the Grand Osage, the Little Osage had already marched a war party against the Kanza , and the Grand Osage, a party against the Arkansa band. White Hair, chief of the Grand Osage, was unable to prevent it, although the expedition was contrary to his wishes. Schemers at St. Louis were constantly inciting trouble between the tribes, and turning their quarrels to their own advantage. The treaty of peace, which Lieutenant Pike was instrumental in bringing about, was faithfully observed by both Osage and Kanza. At the time of this visit, the Grand Osage village on the Osage River numbered, by actual census — men, ; boys, ; women and girls, ; lodges, Cheveau Blanc, or White Hair, was the chief. The government was nominally vested in a small number of chiefs, but their power was limited, all measures which they proposed being submitted to a council of warriors and decided by a majority vote. The tribe was divided into two classes; warriors and hunters composing the first, cooks and doctors the second. The doctors were also priests or magicians, possessing great influence, being supposed to have knowledge of deep mysteries and to be wonderfully skilled in the use of medicines. The cooks were also of much importance, the class including all the warriors who, from age or other cause, were unable to join the war parties. When received into an Osage village, a guest immediately presented himself at the lodge of the chief, where he was expected to eat his first meal, after which he was invited to a general feast, given by the most important warriors and great men. The Osage lodges were usually constructed by driving into the ground upright posts, about twenty feet high, with crotched tops as a rest for the ridge pole, over which were bent small poles, fastened to stakes about four feet high. The ends of the lodge were formed by broad slabs, and the whole covered with rush matting. There was generally a door on each side, the fire being in the center, with a hole in the roof for the escape of the smoke. A raised platform, covered with skins, at one end, served to display the household treasures of the host, and as a place of honor for the guests. The lodges varied in length from thirty-six to one hundred feet. Physically, the Osage were the finest specimens of Western Indians — tall, erect and dignified. The average height of the men was over six feet. On November 10, , a few years subsequent to the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States, a treaty was made at Fort Clark, then recently built, on the Missouri River, between the United States and the Osage Nation. And we do further cede and relinquish to the United States forever, a tract of two leagues square, to embrace Fort Clark, and to be laid off in such manner as the President of United States shall think proper. According to his report, in , President Thomas Jefferson promised the Osage chiefs, then on a visit to Washington, to establish a trading post for the benefit of their nation, this promise being repeated in The fort was built in October , and the following month, November 8, , Pierre Chouteau, United States Agent for the Osage, arrived at Fort Clark, prepared to execute the treaty which Governor Lewis, of Missouri had deputized him to offer the nation. This treaty was not ratified by the Senate until , and the Indians did not receive the first annuity until September , three years after the treaty was made. The blockhouse which was promised for the defense of the Osage towns on the Osage River was useful only to the traders, being detached from the agency, and no competent person having charge. A mill was built and a blacksmith sent to the town of the Great Osage. By the terms of the treaty of , the Osage title to all land in Missouri was extinguished, excepting a strip twenty-four miles wide lying eastward from the western boundary of the State, and extending from the Missouri River south into the Territory of Arkansas. The eastern line extended a few miles east of Fort Clark, which was situated on a bluff on the Missouri River, near the present site of the town of Sibley. The principal village of the Osage was due south from the fort, on the Osage River , and it was this that Captain Zebulon Pike visited and described in George Sibley, former commandant at Fort Clark, in his report, commended the Osage for their uniform and constant faithfulness to the French and Americans. At about the time of this report, a portion of the Osage Nation moved from the old location on the forks of the Osage River and settled on the bank of the Neosho River in the present county of Labette. In , the Cherokee attacked the Osage village on the Verdigris River during the absence of Clermont and his warriors, fired the town, destroyed the crops, and took prisoners, which included old men, women and children who were left there. This assault was followed by mutual acts of recrimination between the hostile tribes, eventuating in war, which lasted several years, the Delaware joining the Cherokee as allies.